This article examines the development of a competition regime in Vietnam, with all of the existing difficulties and problems. In the context of this socialist country, we examine the economic reform and integration process and the challenges of liberalization and globalization. Finally, we provide some thoughts for the future. Specifically, Section II addresses the emergence of Vietnam’s competition law since the 1980’s. Section III describes some of the key legal provisions of the Competition Law of Vietnam. Section IV evaluates the current challenges in the implementation of the Vietnam competition regime, while Section V proposes some recommendations.